Diferencia Entre Arte Urbano Y Graffiti
During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with 2 competing approaches to the problems of human assistants and system. The offset, usually called the classical schoolhouse of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The second, ofttimes called the participative arroyo, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated.
Douglas McGregor, through his well-known “Theory X and Theory Y,” drew a distinction between the assumptions nigh human motivation which underlie these two approaches, to this effect:
- Theory 10 assumes that people dislike piece of work and must be coerced, controlled, and directed toward organizational goals. Furthermore, most people prefer to exist treated this way, so they tin can avoid responsibleness.
- Theory Y—the integration of goals—emphasizes the average person’due south intrinsic interest in his piece of work, his want to be self-directing and to seek responsibility, and his capacity to be artistic in solving concern problems.
It is McGregor’due south conclusion, of form, that the latter arroyo to organization is the more than desirable ane for managers to follow.i
McGregor’due south position causes confusion for the managers who try to choose between these two conflicting approaches. The classical organizational approach that McGregor associated with Theory X does piece of work well in some situations, although, as McGregor himself pointed out, in that location are also some situations where information technology does non work finer. At the aforementioned time, the approach based on Theory Y, while it has produced skilful results in some situations, does not always do so. That is, each approach is effective in some cases just not in others. Why is this? How can managers resolve the confusion?
A New Approach
Recent work by a number of students of management and organization may help to answer such questions.2
These studies point that there is not one best organizational approach; rather, the all-time arroyo depends on the nature of the work to be done. Enterprises with highly anticipated tasks perform amend with organizations characterized past the highly formalized procedures and management hierarchies of the classical approach. With highly uncertain tasks that require more than extensive problem solving, on the other manus, organizations that are less formalized and emphasize cocky-control and member participation in determination making are more than constructive. In essence, according to these newer studies, managers must design and develop organizations and then that the organizational characteristics
the nature of the task to be done.
While the conclusions of this newer approach volition make sense to almost experienced managers and can alleviate much of the confusion nigh which approach to cull, there are still two important questions unanswered: