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  • During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with ii competing approaches to the problems of homo assistants and organization. The first, ordinarily chosen the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of say-so, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The 2nd, often chosen the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making and so that they will be more highly motivated.

    Douglas McGregor, through his well-known “Theory X and Theory Y,” drew a distinction betwixt the assumptions most human motivation which underlie these two approaches, to this effect:

    • Theory 10 assumes that people dislike piece of work and must be coerced, controlled, and directed toward organizational goals. Furthermore, most people prefer to be treated this way, so they can avoid responsibleness.
    • Theory Y—the integration of goals—emphasizes the average person’s intrinsic interest in his piece of work, his desire to exist self-directing and to seek responsibility, and his capacity to be artistic in solving business organisation bug.

    It is McGregor’s determination, of grade, that the latter arroyo to arrangement is the more desirable ane for managers to

    McGregor’s position causes confusion for the managers who try to cull between these ii alien approaches. The classical organizational approach that McGregor associated with Theory Ten does work well in some situations, although, equally McGregor himself pointed out, in that location are likewise some situations where information technology does not work effectively. At the same time, the approach based on Theory Y, while it has produced practiced results in some situations, does not ever exercise so. That is, each arroyo is effective in some cases just not in others. Why is this? How can managers resolve the defoliation?

    A New Approach

    Contempo work by a number of students of management and organization may help to answer such questions.2
    These studies indicate that there is not one best organizational approach; rather, the best approach depends on the nature of the work to be washed. Enterprises with highly anticipated tasks perform meliorate with organizations characterized past the highly formalized procedures and management hierarchies of the classical approach. With highly uncertain tasks that require more extensive trouble solving, on the other hand, organizations that are less formalized and emphasize self-control and member participation in determination making are more effective. In essence, co-ordinate to these newer studies, managers must design and develop organizations and so that the organizational characteristics
    the nature of the task to be done.

    While the conclusions of this newer approach will make sense to well-nigh experienced managers and can alleviate much of the confusion virtually which arroyo to cull, there are even so two of import questions unanswered:

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